What explains the spatio-temporal patterns of violence in a war?

Why are civilians sometimes deliberately targeted while other times combatants exercise restraint?

I examine these questions using data on battles and massacres in the Angolan war and find that  both rebel and government armies are more likely to engage in the deliberate targeting of civilians when they are losing.

List of Data Sources

Sample Research Paper


Center for the Study of Civil War

Many thanks to Ola Ahlqvist at the Ohio State for his help in creating this animation!